Commercial MortgageIndustrial mortgage
ssspan class="mw-headline" id="Terms">Geschäftsbedingungen
Commercial mortgage is a mortgage granted in the form of commercial real estate, such as an administrative block, a mall, an industry store or a residential house. As a rule, the revenue from a commercial mortgage is used for the acquisition, refinancing or renovation of commercial real estate. The commercial mortgage is arranged according to the needs of the borrowers and lenders.
The most important conditions are the amount of the credit (sometimes called " credit revenue "), the interest rates, the duration (sometimes called " duration "), the repayment plan and the advance payment options. As a rule, commercial mortgage loans are subjected to an exhaustive subscription and due care obligation before conclusion. Lenders' endorsement processes may involve a physical examination of the real estate and its owners (or "sponsors"), as well as the engagement and verification of various third-party reporting, such as an estimate.
A commercial mortgage credit amount is usually calculated on the basis of LTV (Loan to Value) and debit servicing cover ratio, which are explained in more detail below in the section on subscription standard. A commercial mortgage can be arranged as a first lien or, if a larger amount of credit is required, the debtor can also obtain subordinated finance, partly in the form of a distressed bond or preference capital, usually with a higher interest rat.
The interest on commercial mortgage loans can be either variable or fix. As a rule, solid mortgage loans on stabilised commercial properties are valued on the basis of a spreads to swaps, with the swing spreads corresponding to the maturity of the loans. Interest and actuarial risks have a strong influence on the interest on a particular commercial property.
The interest rate on commercial mortgage loans is generally higher than that on private mortgage loans. Most commercial mortgage providers need an enrolment charge or a bona fide security bond, which is usually used by the borrower to recover the insurance costs such as an estimate of the real estate. A commercial mortgage may also include issue or subscription charges (paid upon closing as a deduction from credit proceeds) and/or exits charges (paid upon repayment of the loan).
A commercial mortgage usually has a maturity between five and ten years for stabilised commercial property with fixed flow (sometimes referred to as "long-term loans") and between one and three years for property in upheaval, e.g. recently opened or renovated or repositioned property (sometimes referred to as "bridge loans").
Multi-family home loans provided by a government-sponsored company or authority may have a term of thirty years or more. Certain commercial mortgage types may allow renewals if certain requirements are fulfilled, including the possibility to pay a renewal premium. A number of commercial mortgage loans have an "expected date of repayment", i.e. if the credit is not paid back by the expected date of payback, the credit is not in arrears.
A commercial mortgage often amortizes over the life of the mortgage, i.e. the borrowing party will pay both interest and capital over the period, and the final amount of the mortgage is lower than the initial one. Unlike private mortgage loans, however, commercial mortgage loans usually do not pay for themselves completely over the specified period and therefore often end with a ballon repayment of the outstanding amount, which is often paid back by means of real estate funding.
At the beginning of the credit life, some commercial mortgage products have a pure interest rate horizon in which the lender only has to pay interest. Industrial credits differ in their advance payment conditions, i.e. whether a property developer can freely re-finance the credit or not. Certain creditors in the portfolios, such as banking and insurers, may allow advance payment to be flexible.
Conversely, in order for a debtor to pay a conduct credit in advance, the debtor must defeat the debt by purchasing enough treasury notes to give the investor the same return as they would have had if the credit had been outstanding. An industrial mortgage is usually assumed by a SPV, such as a corporate body or an LLC, which is specifically designed to own only the land in question and not by an entrepreneur or major company.
As a result, the creditor is able to exclude the real estate in the case of delay, even if the debtor has gone bankrupt, i.e. the company is "far from bankruptcy". A commercial mortgage can be either subject to recovery or non-recourse. Subrogation mortgage is complemented by a general commitment on the part of the debtor or a private guaranty on the part of the owner(s) of the real estate, which makes the full amount of the mortgage due for payment even if the execution on the real estate does not settle the remaining amount.
Non-recourse mortgages are only guaranteed by the commercial object serving as security. If there is a delay, the lender can exclude the immovable but has no further right against the debtor due to a residual defect. Sponsors wishing to finance a commercial rather than a residential portfolios can take out a Cross-Collateralized Credit Facility with all assets securing the credit.
Creditors may request that borrowers form provisions to finance certain balance sheet line item financing, such as expenses for expected leasehold improvements and rental fees (TI/LC), necessary repairs and investments, and interest rate reserve. Creditors usually need a minimal level of servicing, usually between 1.1 and 1.4; the relationship is the net amount of money (the revenue generated by the property) from servicing the mortgage on it.
For example, if the occupant of a commercial center is receiving $300,000 per month receipts from leaseholders, paying $50,000 per month as an expense, a lending institution usually does not give a credit that will require monthly payments in excess of $227,273 (($300,000-$50,000)/1. 1)), a 1. 1 indebtedness coverage. Creditors also consider loans to value (LTV).
Indicators such as these differ widely according to the site and purpose of the asset, but can be useful indicators of the asset's finances and the probability of competing new development arriving on-line. Ever since the onset of the global economic downturn, creditors have begun to concentrate on a new indicator, return on equity, to supplement funding ratios.
The return on borrowed capital is the net profit (NOI) of a real estate unit, calculated by dividing the amount of the mortgage. Creditors usually perform a thorough, extremely thorough due diligence on a planned commercial mortgage before financing the mortgage. Creditors also consider creditworthiness, account statements, time-in-business and yearly revenues.
A number of creditors also hire and monitor third-party reporting such as expert opinions, environment reporting, technical reporting and backgrounds. Securitisation of commercial mortgage lending in its present forms began in 1992-1997 with the Resolution Trust Corporation's (or RTC's) commercial securitisation programme. RTC followed a similar methodology to private mortgage lending by emitting several instalments of bonds backed by diverse commercial mortgage loan pooling.
Following the RTC's adoption of securitisation techniques, retail credit institutions began to grant credit specifically for conversion into transferable security. Usually, these types of loan are organised in such a way that they prohibit advance payments beyond a certain repayment plan. As a result, the resulting bonds are more appealing to the investor, who knows that commercial mortgage lending will continue to be pending even as interest yields fall.
Hypothecary agents do not offer commercial mortgages, but are often used to obtain several offers from different prospective creditors and control the funding proces. CROs do not lend their own funds, but rather offer front-end front-end service such as originacy, endorsement, underwriting and credit support to creditors using this type of business.
Correspondents often represent creditors in a specific geographical area. Due to the fact that mortgage agreements are classified as real estate used "as or in relation to an apartment by the debtor... or a related party", certain commercial mortgage agreements and their sales are not subject to regulation by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA).
Exceptions exist for mixed-use real estate, where 40% or more of the real estate is used as a home. However, by March 2016, the UK will be obliged to implement new provisions to ensure compliance with the Pan-European Mortgage Credit Directive, which does not distinguish between commercial and semi-commercial real estate, and it is therefore currently not clear whether all mixed-use real estate will be covered by the DCA regime upon the entry into force of the new provisions, regardless of the percentage used for housing use.
The United Kingdom distinguishes between commercial mortgage lending intended for the acquisition of non-residential property and buy-to-lease mortgage lending intended for the acquisition of housing leased to buying lessees. Both commercial and private mortgage providers can offer buy-to-let lending. Buy-to-let mortgage shares resemblances with commercial and private mortgage.
Due to high levels of customer interest and lower clearing standards, mortgage providers are able to provide buy-to-lease financing at lower interest levels than commercial mortgage lending. While there is also some overlap between the buy-to-lease and housing market, many buy-to-lease financiers apply similar EZV reviews to property application forms.
However, as with commercial mortgage loans, buy-to-lease mortgage loans are written according to servicing cover rather than revenue multipliers. Main road banking could charge DSCR at 160-170% for commercial and 125-130% for buy-to-lease mortgage loans, while a minority of specialized creditors could charge it at 125-130% for commercial and 110% for buy-to-lease mortgage loans.